The Association of Boxing Commissions (ABC) has separate policies for transexual and transgender athletes, which are different for male-to-female and female-to-male athletes. The policies also vary depending on when transition begins - before or after adolescence (puberty). For details about the policies and the need for Theraputic Use Exemptions, download the policy below.
Disability Sports Australia is the governing body of sports leagues in Australia. The 2014 Member Protection Policy has specific language around gender identity and supports the participation of trans* athletes on the basis of the gender with which they identify, but encourages trans* athletes to fill out the appropriate Therapeutic Use Exemptions necessary for competition in leagues which require them.
"Disability Sports Australia is committed to providing a safe, fair and inclusive sporting environment where people of all backgrounds can contribute and participate. People who identify as transgender or transsexual should be treated fairly and with dignity and respect at all times. This includes acting with sensitivity when a person is undergoing gender transition.
"We will not tolerate any unlawful discrimination or harassment of a person who identifies as transgender or transsexual or who is thought to be transgender or transsexual. If a transgender or transsexual person feels he or she has been harassed or discriminated against by another person or organisation bound by this Policy, he or she may make a complaint.
Disability Sports Australia recognises that excluding transgender and transsexual people from participating in sporting events and activities has significant implications for their health, well-being and involvement in community life. In general, we will support their participation in our sport on the basis of the gender with which they identify.
Read more in section 6.6:
The Football Association's (FA) policy on trans inclusion in football was set with guidance from the Department for Culture, Media and Sport and the International Olympic Committee. "Individuals undergoing gender reassignment after puberty are required to have had the relevant surgical changes completed at least two years previously, as well as hormonal therapy for a sufficient length of time to minimize gender-related advantages in football matches."
"Policy dictates that transgender players must have had their sex reassignment surgery completed for at least two years before they can be registered to play in FA competition with their acquired gender. Players must also have undergone hormone therapy for a sufficient length of time to minimise any gender-related advantages they may have while playing football, so as to ensure a fair competition.
Children who undergo gender reassignment before puberty are allowed to be registered as their acquired gender. The criteria is not written into the FA rule book.
"On the FA's website it is stated: 'An individual’s sexual orientation or gender identity should never be a barrier to participating in, and enjoying, our national sport.' In order to meet that requirement The FA has pledged to identify the boundaries that prevent LGBT people from engaging with football and ensure that 'every opportunity is given to enable members of gay, lesbian, bisexual and trans communities to participate and progress within their chosen area of participation in football'."
International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) was founded in 1912 as the world governing body for the sport of track and field Athletics. The IAAF policy differs for transmen and transwomen:
shall be permitted to compete in the male category of International Competitions upon production of a sex recognition certificate or other form of identification of sex confirming that he is recognized in law as a male (passport, identity card, etc.) and provided that he is otherwise eligible to compete in accordance with the Rules and Regulations.
- requires notification to IAAF
- consultation with a panel of medical experts
- endocrine assessment
International Gay and Lesbian Football Association (IGLFA) opens its membership to all football/soccer players, coaches, managers, trainers and referees “without discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, sex, physical or mental ability, marital status, race, color, nationality, religion or age”.
For the purposes of registration on gender-based teams, a player may register with the gender team with which the player identifies. The IGLFA must received sufficient confirmation and be satisfied by documentation or evidence that shows the stated gender is sincerely held, and is part of a person’s core identity.
DOWNLOAD: IGLFA Transgender Policy
International Olympic Committee (IOC), the governing body charged with overseeing Olympic competition and those events leading up to the Games, became the first athletic body to adopt a policy of inclusion regarding transgender athletes. The IOC’s policy says only those who have:
1. undergone sex reassignment surgery
2. had hormone treatments for at least two years, and
3. received legal recognition of their transitioned sex
can participate consistent with their gender identities (IOC, 2003).
International Quidditch Association (IQA) promotes gender inclusion by allowing people to self-identify. During a quidditch game, each team must have at least two players in play who identify with a different gender than at least two other players. The gender that a player identifies with is considered to be that player's gender (Rulebook 7 Section 7.1.3.).
The Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) members voted in 2010 to eliminate the requirement that players be "female at birth," thereby allowing transgender players to participate (Thomas, 2010).
Thomas, K. (2010, December 02). L.P.G.A. will allow transgender players to compete. The New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/02/sports/golf/02lpga.html
The Scottish Football Association has a policy which states "Any male-to-female transsexual who underwent sex reassignment surgery before puberty will be accepted for the purpose of eligibility to participate in association football as female. This also applies to individuals who have undergone female-to-male reassignment before puberty, who will be regarded as male.
"Pursuant to Article 81 of the Articles of Association of the Scottish FA, individuals undergoing gender reassignment after puberty may be eligible for participation in association football in their acquired gender PROVIDED THAT such individuals have satisfied the requirements of this policy." For details of the policy, see their page.
The United Kingdom Roller Derby Association (UKRDA) announced the appointment of their new Transgender Liaison and the ratification of their Transgender Policy (April 2014). The policy creates a uniform standard of treatment of transgender skaters, and ensures the protection and safety of transgender skaters throughout the UK, with UKRDA member leagues committing to adhere to the policy. This includes safeguarding the confidentiality of trans* skaters, and ensuring that they are supported not just by the law, but by UKRDA policies.
The document has great sections and explanations, and is a good model for writing clear policies.
DOWNLOAD: UKRDA Transgender Policy
The United States Association of Blind Athletes (USABA) protects against discrimination based on gender expression, which would allow transgender participants:
“The USABA does not discriminate on the basis of race, creed, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, physical or mental disability, Veteran status, marital status, sexual orientation or gender expression.”
2.4.5. Sex reassignment (in accordance with IOC regulations): Any “individuals undergoing sex reassignment of male to female before puberty should be regarded as girls and women” (female). This also applies to individuals undergoing female to male reassignment, who should be regarded as boys and men (male).
Individuals undergoing sex reassignment from male to female after puberty (and vice versa) be eligible for participation in female or male competitions, respectively, under the following conditions:
- Surgical anatomical changes have been completed, including external genitalia changes and gonadectomy
- Legal recognition of their assigned sex has been conferred by the appropriate official authorities
- Hormonal therapy appropriate for the assigned sex has been administered in a verifiable manner and for a sufficient length of time to minimize gender-related advantages in sport competitions
Eligibility should begin no sooner than two years after gonadectomy. It is understood that a confidential case-by-case evaluation will occur. In the event that the gender of a competing athlete is questioned, the medical commission (ACRP/ABRM) shall have the authority to take all appropriate measures for the determination of the gender of a competitor.
DOWNLOAD: USA Boxing Medical Handbook
Not an inclusive policy. USA Senior Softball recently approved their policy in summer 2014. Senior Softball-USA is dedicated to informing and uniting the Senior Softball Players of America and the World. Senior Softball-USA sanctions tournaments and championships, registers players, writes the rulebook, publishes Senior Softball-USA News, hosts International Softball Tours and promotes Senior Softball throughout the world. More than 1.5 million men and women over 40 play Senior Softball in the United States today.
"14.2(6) • TRANS-GENDER ATHLETES
Men are not permitted to compete on women’s teams in SSUSA sanctioned events, but on occasion
the eligibility issue of trans-gender athletes arises. To ensure that no athlete is excluded from the
opportunity to participate, that the safety of women players is protected, and to maintain fairness in
competition, the SSUSA has adopted the standards used by the International Olympic Committee
(“IOC”) to govern the eligibility of trans-gender athletes." Read more at the link below.
NOTE: to make this policy more inclusive, trans people not taking hormones would go under review. If they are living as their true gender and that is different than what is listed on birth documents, we are limiting their ability to comfortably participate in the sport.
The United States Soccer Federation (USSF) opens its membership to all soccer organizations and all soccer players, coaches, trainers, managers, administrators and officials "without discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression or national origin."
For the purposes of registration on gender-based amateur teams, a player may register with the gender team with which the player identifies, and confirmation sufficient for guaranteeing access shall be satisfied by documentation or evidence that shows the stated gender is sincerely held, and part of a person’s core identity. Documentation satisfying the herein stated standard includes, but is not limited to, government-issued documentation or documentation prepared by a health care provider, counselor, or other qualified professional not related to the player.
This policy does not apply to Professional Leagues, and does not apply to the Federation’s National Teams programs, but application of this or a similar policy shall be re-evaluated at such time as FIFA addresses the issue.
At its February 27, 2005 meeting, the USA Track & Field (USATF) Board of Directors adopted the International Olympic Committee's policy regarding competition by transgender athletes and transsexual athletes.
USA Triathlon follows United States Anti-Doping Agency rules regarding the use of testosterone, which is a banned substance which requires a theraputic use exemption (TUE) in order to avoid violating policy.
The Women's Flat Track Derby Association's (WFTDA) Gender Policy provides intersex and transgender athletes with equal opportunities to participate in athletics "while still maintaining integrity as a women’s sport." This policy does not consider whether an athlete has undergone sex reassignment surgery, as such surgery is not considered medically necessary or linked to competitive equity.
To participate on the chartered teams in WFTDA-sanctioned games, an athlete must be Female ("Living as a woman and having sex hormones that are within the medically acceptable range for a female"). Male athletes may not participate, nor can those born female or Intersex who identify as male.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) works towards a vision of a world where all athletes compete in a doping-free sporting environment. Unfortunately for transgender athletes taking testosterone, a banned substance according to WADA's rules, the policies do not always support one's ability to participate. Athletes competing in sports observing WADA or USADA rules who are using testosterone must apply for Theraputic Use Exemption (TUE).
DOWNLOAD: The 2013 WADA Prohibited List International Standard