The Association of Boxing Commissions (ABC) has separate policies for transexual and transgender athletes, which are different for male-to-female and female-to-male athletes. The policies also vary depending on when transition begins - before or after adolescence (puberty). For details about the policies and the need for Theraputic Use Exemptions, download the policy below.
British Rowing has a transgender and transsexual policy that states trans men may compete as their affirmed gender, and trans women "may compete in their affirmed gender in female or mixed-sex domestic competition by providing evidence that her hormone therapy has brought her blood- measured testosterone levels within the range of her affirmed gender or that she has had a gonadectomy."
Disability Sports Australia is the governing body of sports leagues in Australia. The 2014 Member Protection Policy has specific language around gender identity and supports the participation of trans* athletes on the basis of the gender with which they identify, but encourages trans* athletes to fill out the appropriate Therapeutic Use Exemptions necessary for competition in leagues which require them.
"Disability Sports Australia is committed to providing a safe, fair and inclusive sporting environment where people of all backgrounds can contribute and participate. People who identify as transgender or transsexual should be treated fairly and with dignity and respect at all times. This includes acting with sensitivity when a person is undergoing gender transition.
"We will not tolerate any unlawful discrimination or harassment of a person who identifies as transgender or transsexual or who is thought to be transgender or transsexual. If a transgender or transsexual person feels he or she has been harassed or discriminated against by another person or organisation bound by this Policy, he or she may make a complaint.
Disability Sports Australia recognises that excluding transgender and transsexual people from participating in sporting events and activities has significant implications for their health, well-being and involvement in community life. In general, we will support their participation in our sport on the basis of the gender with which they identify.
Read more in section 6.6:
Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the national governing body for grassroots and elite rugby in England, with 2,000 autonomous rugby clubs in its membership. It's policy follows International Olympic Committee rules, requiring "written confirmation from the individual’s GP or consultant that the required surgical anatomical changes, including external genitalia changes and gonadectomy has been completed two years previous to the application."
DOWNLOAD: RFU Transgender and Transsexual policy
Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) is the governing body responsible for all forms of Volleyball on a global level. The policy listed for Gender states: "Gender must be attested by the national federations through the birth certificate of the player. Female players may be required to present a valid gender certificate and/or submit themselves to a medical examination in case of doubt based on medical evidence."
Additionally, there is a Gender Verification policy: "Gender Verification will not be performed during senior, junior or youth events. Gender verification may be conducted on a case by case basis in event of doubt based on medical evidence. Competitors’ refusal if requested to yield to gender verification controls entails their elimination from the competition."
DOWNLOAD: FIVB Gender requirements (6.2 and 6.3)
The Football Association's (FA) policy on trans inclusion in football was set with guidance from the Department for Culture, Media and Sport and the International Olympic Committee. "Individuals undergoing gender reassignment after puberty are required to have had the relevant surgical changes completed at least two years previously, as well as hormonal therapy for a sufficient length of time to minimize gender-related advantages in football matches."
"Policy dictates that transgender players must have had their sex reassignment surgery completed for at least two years before they can be registered to play in FA competition with their acquired gender. Players must also have undergone hormone therapy for a sufficient length of time to minimise any gender-related advantages they may have while playing football, so as to ensure a fair competition.
Children who undergo gender reassignment before puberty are allowed to be registered as their acquired gender. The criteria is not written into the FA rule book.
"On the FA's website it is stated: 'An individual’s sexual orientation or gender identity should never be a barrier to participating in, and enjoying, our national sport.' In order to meet that requirement The FA has pledged to identify the boundaries that prevent LGBT people from engaging with football and ensure that 'every opportunity is given to enable members of gay, lesbian, bisexual and trans communities to participate and progress within their chosen area of participation in football'."
International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) was founded in 1912 as the world governing body for the sport of track and field Athletics. The IAAF policy differs for transmen and transwomen:
shall be permitted to compete in the male category of International Competitions upon production of a sex recognition certificate or other form of identification of sex confirming that he is recognized in law as a male (passport, identity card, etc.) and provided that he is otherwise eligible to compete in accordance with the Rules and Regulations.
- requires notification to IAAF
- consultation with a panel of medical experts
- endocrine assessment
International Gay and Lesbian Football Association (IGLFA) opens its membership to all football/soccer players, coaches, managers, trainers and referees “without discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, sex, physical or mental ability, marital status, race, color, nationality, religion or age”.
For the purposes of registration on gender-based teams, a player may register with the gender team with which the player identifies. The IGLFA must received sufficient confirmation and be satisfied by documentation or evidence that shows the stated gender is sincerely held, and is part of a person’s core identity.
DOWNLOAD: IGLFA Transgender Policy
International Olympic Committee (IOC) Consensus Meeting in November 2015 agreed the following guidelines to be taken into account by sports organizations when determining eligibility to compete in male and female competition:
1. Those who transition from female to male are eligible to compete in the male category without restriction.
2. Those who transition from male to female are eligible to compete in the female category under the following conditions:
2.1. The athlete has declared that her gender identity is female. The declaration cannot be changed, for sporting purposes, for a minimum of four years.
2.2. The athlete must demonstrate that her total testosterone level in serum has been below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to her first competition (with the requirement for any longer period to be based on a confidential case-by-case evaluation, considering whether or not 12 months is a sufficient length of time to minimize any advantage in women’s competition).
2.3. The athlete's total testosterone level in serum must remain below 10nmol/L throughout the period of desired eligibility to compete in the female category.
2.4. Compliance with these conditions may be monitored by testing. In theevent of non-compliance, the athlete’s eligibility for female competition will be suspended for 12 months.
International Quidditch Association (IQA) promotes gender inclusion by allowing people to self-identify. During a quidditch game, each team must have at least two players in play who identify with a different gender than at least two other players. The gender that a player identifies with is considered to be that player's gender (Rulebook 7 Section 7.1.3.).
International Tennis Federation (ITF) follows International Olympic Committee's transgender policy, which requires "Surgical anatomical changes have been completed, including external genitalia changes and gonadectomy."
The Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) members voted in 2010 to eliminate the requirement that players be "female at birth," thereby allowing transgender players to participate (Thomas, 2010).
Thomas, K. (2010, December 02). L.P.G.A. will allow transgender players to compete. The New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/02/sports/golf/02lpga.html
The Scottish Football Association has a policy which states "Any male-to-female transsexual who underwent sex reassignment surgery before puberty will be accepted for the purpose of eligibility to participate in association football as female. This also applies to individuals who have undergone female-to-male reassignment before puberty, who will be regarded as male.
"Pursuant to Article 81 of the Articles of Association of the Scottish FA, individuals undergoing gender reassignment after puberty may be eligible for participation in association football in their acquired gender PROVIDED THAT such individuals have satisfied the requirements of this policy." For details of the policy, see their page.
The United Kingdom Roller Derby Association (UKRDA) announced the appointment of their new Transgender Liaison and the ratification of their Transgender Policy (April 2014). The policy creates a uniform standard of treatment of transgender skaters, and ensures the protection and safety of transgender skaters throughout the UK, with UKRDA member leagues committing to adhere to the policy. This includes safeguarding the confidentiality of trans* skaters, and ensuring that they are supported not just by the law, but by UKRDA policies.
The document has great sections and explanations, and is a good model for writing clear policies.
DOWNLOAD: UKRDA Transgender Policy
The United States Association of Blind Athletes (USABA) protects against discrimination based on gender expression, which would allow transgender participants:
“The USABA does not discriminate on the basis of race, creed, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, physical or mental disability, Veteran status, marital status, sexual orientation or gender expression.”
2.4.5. Sex reassignment (in accordance with IOC regulations): Any “individuals undergoing sex reassignment of male to female before puberty should be regarded as girls and women” (female). This also applies to individuals undergoing female to male reassignment, who should be regarded as boys and men (male).
Individuals undergoing sex reassignment from male to female after puberty (and vice versa) be eligible for participation in female or male competitions, respectively, under the following conditions:
- Surgical anatomical changes have been completed, including external genitalia changes and gonadectomy
- Legal recognition of their assigned sex has been conferred by the appropriate official authorities
- Hormonal therapy appropriate for the assigned sex has been administered in a verifiable manner and for a sufficient length of time to minimize gender-related advantages in sport competitions
Eligibility should begin no sooner than two years after gonadectomy. It is understood that a confidential case-by-case evaluation will occur. In the event that the gender of a competing athlete is questioned, the medical commission (ACRP/ABRM) shall have the authority to take all appropriate measures for the determination of the gender of a competitor.
DOWNLOAD: USA Boxing Medical Handbook
USA Gymnastics has different policies for pre- and post-pubescent competitors. USA Gymnastics follows the IOC regulations, which requires hormone use, genital surgery and gonadectomy for post-pubescent MTF competitors, but not for FTM competitors.
A post-pubescent athlete will be eligible for participation after completing their transition, provided the following:
• Surgical anatomical changes have been completed, to include the appropriate sex reassignment. Eligibility should begin no sooner than two years after gonadectomy.
• Legal recognition of assigned sex is obtained from the appropriate authorities.
• Hormone therapy has been administered in a verifiable manner and for a sufficient length of time (one year minimum) to minimize gender-related competitive advantages.
• If gender confirmation surgery is desired, the surgery has been completed, the athlete is in good health, and has been cleared by their surgeon to participate in gymnastics
• Legal recognition of assigned sex is obtained from the appropriate authorities.
• If hormone therapy is desired, it is being monitored by a medical doctor and is not being used as a way to enhance athletic advantage.
US Rowing uses government ID as the standard for athlete placement. "All Rowers in Events for men are male and that all Rowers in Events for women are female. Gender is determined by the Competitor’s government issued ID and will be noted on the Competitor’s credential."
DOWNLOAD: US Rowing The Rules of Rowing 2015
No person shall be denied the right to participate in any event within the jurisdiction of US SAILING or to manage or otherwise be involved in the participation of such event, or having so participated shall suffer any penalty for having participated, on grounds of race, color, religion, age, sex, or national origin, disability, veteran status, sexual orientation, gender identity, or expression, genetic information, or any other status protected by federal, state or local law, where applicable.
DOWNLOAD: USA Sailing Bylaws
Not an inclusive policy. USA Senior Softball recently approved their policy in summer 2014. Senior Softball-USA is dedicated to informing and uniting the Senior Softball Players of America and the World. Senior Softball-USA sanctions tournaments and championships, registers players, writes the rulebook, publishes Senior Softball-USA News, hosts International Softball Tours and promotes Senior Softball throughout the world. More than 1.5 million men and women over 40 play Senior Softball in the United States today.
"14.2(6) • TRANS-GENDER ATHLETES
Men are not permitted to compete on women’s teams in SSUSA sanctioned events, but on occasion
the eligibility issue of trans-gender athletes arises. To ensure that no athlete is excluded from the
opportunity to participate, that the safety of women players is protected, and to maintain fairness in
competition, the SSUSA has adopted the standards used by the International Olympic Committee
(“IOC”) to govern the eligibility of trans-gender athletes." Read more at the link below.
NOTE: to make this policy more inclusive, trans people not taking hormones would go under review. If they are living as their true gender and that is different than what is listed on birth documents, we are limiting their ability to comfortably participate in the sport.
The United States Soccer Federation (USSF) opens its membership to all soccer organizations and all soccer players, coaches, trainers, managers, administrators and officials "without discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression or national origin."
For the purposes of registration on gender-based amateur teams, a player may register with the gender team with which the player identifies, and confirmation sufficient for guaranteeing access shall be satisfied by documentation or evidence that shows the stated gender is sincerely held, and part of a person’s core identity. Documentation satisfying the herein stated standard includes, but is not limited to, government-issued documentation or documentation prepared by a health care provider, counselor, or other qualified professional not related to the player.
This policy does not apply to Professional Leagues, and does not apply to the Federation’s National Teams programs, but application of this or a similar policy shall be re-evaluated at such time as FIFA addresses the issue.
DOWNLOAD: USSF amendment change
USA Swimming Anti-Discrimination Statement provides protection for transgender athletes. Its Code of Conduct says, “discrimination against any member or participant on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, and gender expression is prohibited (304.3.3),” meaning that trans swimmers can participate in events in the gender with which they identity.
At its February 27, 2005 meeting, the USA Track & Field (USATF) Board of Directors adopted the International Olympic Committee's policy regarding competition by transgender athletes and transsexual athletes.
USA Triathlon follows United States Anti-Doping Agency rules regarding the use of testosterone, which is a banned substance which requires a theraputic use exemption (TUE) in order to avoid violating policy.
The Women's Flat Track Derby Association's (WFTDA) Gender Policy updated its policy with a new statement and broadened protections for athlete gender identity in November 2015. The new statement provides intersex and transgender athletes with equal opportunities to participate in athletics "while still maintaining integrity as a women’s sport." It states that the WFTDA “is committed to inclusive and anti-discrimination practices in relation to all transgender women, intersex women, and gender expansive participants, and aims to ensure that all skaters’, volunteers’, and employees’ rights are respected and protected.”In regard to athlete participation, it states: “An individual who identifies as a trans woman, intersex woman, and/or gender expansive may skate with a WFTDA charter team if women’s flat track roller derby is the version and composition of roller derby with which they most closely identify. … The gender identity of any and all WFTDA participants is considered confidential and private.”
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) works towards a vision of a world where all athletes compete in a doping-free sporting environment. Unfortunately for transgender athletes taking testosterone, a banned substance according to WADA's rules, the policies do not always support one's ability to participate. Athletes competing in sports observing WADA or USADA rules who are using testosterone must apply for Theraputic Use Exemption (TUE).
DOWNLOAD: The 2013 WADA Prohibited List International Standard
The World OutGames new policy for the World OutGames Miami 2017 requires a self declaration method for gender identity and verification only if OutGames administrators deem it necessary to further explore for verification purposes or if the athlete's stated gender identity is challenged.
DOWNLOAD: World OutGames policy